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Yalta. Embankment. 1875. Zoom in

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References




View of Yalta from Polikurovsky Hill. 1890. Zoom in



The first sanatorium for peasants Zoom in



The pioneer Camp "Artec". 1955. Zoom in



Yalta. Embankment. 1955. Zoom in



 
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        After the Crimea had been included in Russia (1783), the lands of present Yalta were given up to the large landowners "for growing lemon, orange, olive and other trees". The village began to grow slowly, although lack of roads hampered its development greatly.
        In 1823 M.S. Vorontsov was appointed the Governor-General of Nova Rossia, which includes the Crimea. The enterprising tsar's dignitary, being a prominent landowner, Vorontsov founded wine-making enterprises in Alupka and Massandra.
        A great contribution to the development of wine-making and spreading subtropical ornamental trees and fruit trees on a Southern coast was made by Nikitsky Botanical Gardens, organized not far from Yalta in 1812.
        In twenties of the XIX century the highway connected Yalta with Simferopol, and in thirties - with Sevastopol. In 1838 Yalta got the status of a town and become a center of the new Yalta uezd (administrative area). However still up to the 60-s all western part of Yalta was occupied with vineyards and tobacco plantations. Yalta began developing only in 70-s , especially after the railway Lozovaia -Sevastopol was built in 1873.
        Medicinal properties of Yalta and its environs were insistently promoted by the doctors Botkin and Dmitriyev. Professor Sergei Botkin was the first to express the idea, that Yalta and the whole Southern coast - were the best place from a climate standpoint in Russia for people who suffered from tuberculosis. After his advice the royal family Romanov bought Livadia (for themselves).
        It gave a stimulus to the rapid development of Yalta. In order to be closer to the tsar the court aristocracy started building palaces and cottages there. After that, enterprising bourgeoisie began to construct hotels and cottages for the well-off people.
        Establishment of the Soviet power in Crimea (1920) favoured the development of the town. The organizing of the resort network began. Sanatoriums were started on the basis of the nationalized hotels, boarding houses, and cottages. 18 sanatoriums with rooms for 2400 had functioned in the Yalta's resort area by summer of 1921. In 1925 the first sanatorium for peasants was open in the former royal estate in Livadia. And at the foot of Medved-gora (Bear-mountain) the first tents of the pioneer Camp "Artec" were pitched. Soon construction of new health-resorts begin. In 1928 in the mountainous-woodland area of Yalta the sanatorium "Dolossy" came into service.
        In autumn of 1941 the Crimea was occupied by fascist Germany, that interrupted the resort construction. On 16th April 1944 Yalta was liberated by the Soviet Army. After being restored Yalta started developing.
        In Yalta are situated the well-known "I.M. Sechenov" Research Institute of Physical Methods of Treatment and Medical Climatology and "Magarach" Research Institute of Viticulture and Wine-making. In 1961 regular trolleybus service between Simferopol and Yalta was organized. The trolleybus route was opened in the town itself.
        Arriving to Yalta you are sure to hear en expression "Bolshaya Yalta " ("Big Yalta"). It's not a slip of the tongue. Bolshaya Yalta is a significant part of a Southern coast of Crimea, which is about 70 km in length. It stretches from the village of Foros in the West to the village of Krasnokamenka in the East. Yalta is an administrative and resort centre on the coast. There are different enterprises on the territory of Bolshaya Yalta, such as viticultural, tobacco-growing, horticultural. A wine of the Massandra plants enjoys worldwide fame. In recent years a lot of new apartment buildings and convalescent homes have been build in Yalta, great work has been done on town development.
 



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